ˀ (Glottal Stop)

ˀ is the glottal stop [ ʔ ] (also called a slow marker). You can hear this sound in English before the vowels in the words uh-uh (meaning no) and oh-oh (meaning oops), but English does not spell the glottal stop (or use it as a regular consonant). When you pronounce a glottal stop, you might be able to feel the vocal folds deliberately closing in your Adam’s apple.

haˀnih my father

onǫ́ˀa:ˀ a head


ˀ In Cayuga, the glottal stop is as important as any other consonant; for example, it can make the difference between a statement and a command:

satgǫhso̲háe: wash your face! (command; no glottal stop at the end)

asatgǫhsóhae:ˀ you have washed your face (statement; ends with a glottal stop)